Numerous types of plums thrive splendidly in local regions. However, not every variety is suitable for your orchard. Find out in this article which plums promise successful harvests.
Until recently, the plum tree produced hardly any harvests in regions with a strong Scharka infestation. Hobby gardeners have benefited from new crosses for more than 30 years. Today there are around 2,000 different varieties. These belong to 15 types.
- Old and new plum varieties: an overview
- Picking elderberries - an overview of the most important rules
- Fruit tree care at a glance
The focus is on breeding resilient plums. The settlement of natural predators has proven to be the most effective against various types of pests. Despite appropriate care and a sunny location, fruit trees often suffer from Scharka disease.
- Transmission by aphids
- brown, hard spots in the pulp and on the skin
- only known chemical antidotes
- negative impact on the entire harvest
In addition, new varieties produce a rich harvest in the first year after planting. The fruits convince with a fruity, sweet taste. Most varieties are self-fruiting. When choosing the right plum tree, pay attention to the following features:
The first choice is self-fertile plums. These do not need specific neighbors for pollination.
It is advisable to grow an early and a late variety. In this way, delicious fruits ripen gradually from July to October.
Felsina and Topfive
- Harvest: from August
Both types are resilient. Due to the low demands on soil and location, they are suitable for the orchard. Felsina and Topfive plant fruit in the first or second year of cultivation.
- Fruits: medium-sized, juicy, sweet and sour
- Harvest: July to August
The Formos plum offers a rich harvest from the second year of cultivation. Thanks to its easy-care character, it is suitable for all floors and locations.
Yellow Egg Plum (Yellow Marunke)
- Fruits: round, juicy, yellow
- Harvest: early September
- very susceptible to rot in persistently damp weather
- tall growing
- very susceptible to frost
For a good yield, this variety needs a nutrient-rich soil as well as a warm summer climate. The plum tree does not thrive in cool areas.
- Fruits: small, yellowish green
- Harvest: mid to late August
- Variant: high trunk, fruit hedge
- resistant to diseases and pests
This variety cannot be stored. After the harvest, the sweet and plump fruits provide a wonderful base for jams. In addition, the shell is easy to remove. This is an advantage for making delicious desserts and juices. The yellow spilling can withstand longer dry periods.
- Fruits: up to 45 grams
- Harvest: early September
- sharka tolerant
This variety is suitable for small home gardens as it grows weakly. It ripens very well in cool locations and makes no demands on the soil. The self-fruiting plum has enriched the fruit trade since 1980. Hanita is suitable for the preparation of various regional specialties. As dried fruit, it can be stored for up to 12 months.
Harbella and Presenta
- Harvest: September / October
- good storability
Both varieties start early and have a high yield. Presenta can be stored the longest. It plays an important role in the fruit trade.
- Fruits: up to 60 grams in weight
- resistant to the Sharka virus
This plum has been available in stores since 1999. It was created by crossing Stanley Zwetschge and Ortenauer Zwetschge. There are small specimens with good yields in specialist shops. They are suitable as a container plant for the balcony or terrace.
Katinka and Tegera
- Fruits: large
- low susceptibility to putrefaction
Katinka ripens from the second week of July. It is ideal as a dessert fruit or for baking.
Top hit and Haganta
- Fruits: up to 80 grams
- Harvest: mid-September
- resistant to pest and fungal attack
Tophit is characterized by its sharka tolerance. In contrast, Haganta is not suitable for areas with strong Sharka infestation.
Large plums are available in markets. These come primarily from southern areas and have a weak aroma. Friar is one of the popular varieties. This is not suitable for the home garden.
Excursus: Ume (Prunus mume)
This Japanese plum is very popular in Japan. Their flowers appear between January and February. Ume flowers and ume fruits play a special role in Japan. In everyday life and in art, they are a classic symbol of luck or survival. Their sour taste allows them to be used in many ways. Ume is also represented in traditional Chinese medicine.
Ontario plum (yellow round plum)
- Fruits: large, juicy plums
- Flowering: late, frost hardy
- Harvest: from the beginning of August (in warmer areas)
This variety has been on the market since 1847. When blended regularly, the yellow round plum delivers lush harvests for many years.
Tips & Tricks
Delicious relatives of these species include plums, mirabelle plums, and reindeer. These juicy fruits are suitable for making jams, desserts and fruit cakes. Outwardly, new plum varieties differ less and less from these subgroups.