Drought due to too little water
In our latitudes it is rare that lavender dries up due to a drought. Garden plants are not endangered in summer as they develop a broad and deep network of roots that is able to get the moisture they need from the ground even in hot summers. Nevertheless, you should keep a close eye on your planted lavender during prolonged dry periods: If the leaves are hanging, it is time for a gush from the watering can. Potted lavender, which actually has to be watered regularly - is at greater risk due to drying out - but only when the surface has already dried out.
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Lavender dries up especially in winter
However, lavender does not only dry up in hot summer - as one would suspect - but mainly in winter. The combination of sun and frost in particular endangers the plants, as the sun allows the necessary moisture to evaporate before the leaves can absorb it. You should only water if the soil is not frozen through.
Drought caused by waterlogging
Far more often than not enough, the lavender dries up due to too much water. At first glance this seems absurd - how can a plant dry out even though it is watered? The solution to the riddle is the following: Too much water and waterlogging cause root rot, which means that the roots can no longer absorb water or not enough water and pass it on to the above-ground parts of the plant. The result is that the lavender dries up even though the roots have literally drowned. The plants can sometimes be saved by repotting or transplanting them.
But how do you know what kind of drought it is? This is relatively easy to determine by looking closely at a few stems and scratching them. If the lavender has dried up due to too little water, the stems will also be brown inside. If, on the other hand, there is root rot, the stalks inside are often still green.
Tips & Tricks
Although lavender needs little water, freshly planted bushes should still be watered more regularly and, above all, directly at the roots. Their roots have not yet been able to anchor themselves sufficiently in the ground and are therefore not properly able to absorb sufficient moisture.